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Huseyn Javid

Huseyn Javid

Javid, Huseyn Javid (penname; original name and surname is Rasulzadeh Huseyn Abdullah oglu; 24.10.1882, Nakhchivan city – 5.12.1941, Russia, Irkutsk region) – poet, playwright. He was born in the family of Abdullah Rasizadeh, intellectual and a popular religious figure, got his primary education in mollakhana in Nakhchivan then continued his education in the school of “Tarbiya” of M.T.Sidgi (1894-1898). He wrote his first poems in the classical style under the signature of “Gulchin” and “Salik”. In 1899-1903 he was in the South Azerbaijan and continued his study in the Talibiyya madrasa of Tabriz. He graduated from the department of literature of the Istanbul University (1909), began to work as a teacher in Nakhchivan, Ganja and Tbilisi and in Baki from 1915. Javid is one of the writers who followed the best traditions of the Classical Azerbaijan literature. He was one of the founders of the Azerbaijan romanticism and also one of the creators of the contemporary Azerbaijan literature.

Javid’s activity is rich from the artistic kind, genre and form points of view. He is the author of the first written tragedy in verse and dramas in the Azerbaijan literature. His first book of poems “Kechmish gunlar” (The last days) was published in 1913. On the early days of his activity he paid much attention to the public-political lyrics. The tragic life of the working people existing in the society, full of social injustice is depicted in the poems. “Oksuz Annvar” (Free Anvar), “Choban turkusu” (A shepherd’s song), “Kichik sarsari” (A little idler), “Dun va bugun” (Yesterday and today), “Gadin” (A woman), “Gormadim” (Didn’t see), “Varamli giz” (A tubercular girl) and others. The poem “Masud and Shafiga” exposes the parasite and luxurious life of the landowners and possessors and also so miserable living condition of the Baki oil-field workers. In the poem “What are you, who are you, saying to the wise people” (1912) the poet tried to seek a lucky life and free way of living of people. In his poems “Mazlumlar uchun” (For the meeky people) (1914), “Guruba garshi” (Against the sunset), “Harb va Falakat” (War and Catastrophe) (1916), “Harb ilahi garshisinda” (War in front of the Almighty) (1917), he demonstrated his hatred against the imperialist wars.

Javid was better known as a playwright. As his philosophical and historical tragedies, the family and life dramas formed a new stage in the Azerbaijan drama from its style, writing maneuver and form newness point of view it also impacted the promotion of the national theatre culture and was characterized as the “Javid theatre”. The universal, great public-political and problems of cultural importance were pictured in his dramas. The nobleness, devotion, fearless features stated in the verse play “Ana” (Mother) (1910) are only belonged to the simple people. The questions of personality and women liberty are discovered in the tragedy “Maral” (Deer) (1912) and the aggressive moral views are exposed in the work. The protest against the religious and national discriminations occupy the leading part in the first tragedy written in verse in the Azerbaijan literature. In that period Javid gradually could reach the idea that “The right isn’t granted but earned”. The very idea was vividly pictured in the drama “Sheyda” (1917), in the poem “You can gain your rights by fighting” (1918). Not only the paradoxal contradictions existing in the ideas and morals, but also the real social contradictions Javid stated in “Sheyda”, called everybody to struggle against the exploitation of the meeky and hard working people. In his “Iblis” (Devil) (1918) tragedy which occupied the highest place in his activity, Javid exposed all kinds of aggressive powers of his time, generalized the followers of the philosophy “a man is a wolf against a man” and the imperialist circles of the wilds of the twentieth century, in the image of a Devil and damned all aggressive forces. The main conflict of Javid activity up to the 20 century was the confrontation of the aggressive forces with the friends of freedom, equality, peace, internationalism, education and culture. The artistic gist of these works constitutes the injustice, exploitation systems against the catastrophe of mankind. Javid, who devoted to his aesthetic ideas, wrote several works which sounded suitable for the demands of the 20-30 years of the last century. The epos “Azar” (1920-37) occupies an honourable place among his works. Javid, who went to Germany for treatment in 1926 and lived in Berlin for a while, returned to his native land with some political-lyrics and lyrical-epic poems reflecting the social-moral contradictions of the West. Javid branded the disaster of colonialism with a strong hatred in his work “Nil yavrusu” (The cub of the Nile). During this period Javid wrote several historical dramas. His “Peyghambar”(Prophet) (1922), “Topal Teymur” (Lame Teymur) (1925), “Sayavush” (1933), “Khayyam” (1935) historical dramas caused a great change in the view of Javid to the history and historical persons. The propaganda of Turkism and Turanism ideas occupied the activity of Javid. The idea of Turkism is vividly pictured in his tragedies “Khayyam”, “Lame Teymur” and “Sayavush”. The poet selected the people who were against exploitation, the leaders of the strikes and certainly Khayyam, a free-thinking thinker as head heroes. The rising danger of the fascisim and the World War II were the problems that worried Javid (The drama “The revenge of the Devil, 1936”). Tha Azerbaijanis in the Southern Azerbaijan and their misery suffers under the “shah of shahs” regime, their being deprived of the elementary human rights made Javid think deeply as a patriot poet. (The drama“The stringed saz” 1930, the poem “The blind neyzan”, 1930). The philosophical, political-public views of Javid promoted from the “general love” to the highest humanist level. His poetry is distinguished with a great artistic work, deep emotion and sincerity.

His 100, 110, 120 and 125 anniversaries were widely celebrated. His house-museums were established in Nakhchivan and Baki, the memorial bas-relief plaque was put in the building he used to live (at present it is the building of the Manuscripts Institute of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences). On the eve of his 100th jubilee his corpse was brought to Nakhchivan from the Irkutsk region and buried near his house-museum. By the initiative of Heydar Aliyev, president of Azerbaijan Republic, a huge tomb was erected on his grave (1966). There are streets, gardens, schools, libraries, cinemas and other cultural-educational enterprises after his name in Baki, Nakhchivan and other cities and regions of the republic. A very huge monument was erected to him in Baki.

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