Mammadguluzadeh Jalil Mammadgulu oglu (nickname Molla Nasraddin; 22.2.1869, Nakhchivan -4.1.1932, Baki)–writer, playwright, journalist, public figure. He played an important role in forming independent statehood ideas which resulted in the establishment of the People’s Republic of Azerbaijan. He got his primary education firstly in mollakhana and then in the Nakhchivan city school of three classes. After graduating the Gori Teachers Seminary (1887) he worked as a teacher in Ulukhanli of the Iravan province, Jalilkand (Sharur region) of the Nakhchivan province and in Nehram village (1887-97). The years he worked a teacher gave a rich material for the future activity of the writer; Just “Chay dastgahi” (Tea set)(1889) allegorical drama written in verse, “Kishmish oyunu” (The game of raisins)(1892) comedy, “Danabash kandinin ahvalatlari” (The events of the Danabash village)(1894; was published in 1936) story were written in this period. He worked in different juridical offices in Nakhchivan and Iravan (1897-1903).
“Shargi-Rus” newspaper published in Tbilisi in 1903 and Mahammadagha Shahtakhtli, the editor-in chief played a great role in Jalil Mammadguluzadeh’s getting matured. His first press work “Post office” story was published in this newspaper. When “Shargi-Rus” was closed at the beginning of 1905 he bought this publishing house together with the journalist Omar Faig Nemanzadeh and the educationalist merchant Mashadi Alasgar Baghirzadeh and named it “Geyrat” (Honour). The first booklets of the writer (“Post office”, “Master Zeynal”, “Gurbanali bay”, “Freedom in Iran”) were published in the “Geyrat” publishing house (1905-07). He opened a school and a boarding school in Tbilisi in 1905.
By beginning the publication of the first issue of the journal “Molla Nasraddin” on April 7, 1906, Jalil MAmmadguluzadeh laid the foundation of the satirical journalism in Azerbaijan and as well as in the Turkish-Moslem world. The journal was published in Tbilisi (340 issues) in 1931, in Tabriz (8 issues) and in Baki (400 issues) of different intervals.
Jalil Mammadguluzadeh was the editor–in– chief of “Molla Nasraddin” and “Yeni yol” (New way) (Baki), member of the All–Union Central New Alphabet Committee and one of the organizers of the Baki-Critical-Propagate Committee in the Soviet period.
Jalil Mammadguluzadeh played an unexampled role in promoting of the realist Azerbaijan literature to a new and higher stage by writing in different genres (drama, story, tale, poem, publicist, literary critics, memory and so on) during his 40 years activity. He mentioned the feudal-patriarchal relations, self willed actions of the tsar officials and hypocrite religious people, backwards in the minds and life, fanatism and ignorance, the miserable fortune of women existing in Azerbaijan in his tale “The events of the Danabash village” and his first stories “Post box”, “Master Zeynal”, “Gurbanali bay” etc. The popular “Olular” (The Dead men) (1909) tragicomedy, occupies an honourable place in the history of the Azerbaijan realism and satire.
Jalil Mammadguluzadeh and broad-minded intellectuals surrounded him established the fundamentals of real Azerbaijanism. The ideology having ties with the national interests of Azerbaijan was a correct way. The writer expressed this way in the article “Azerbaijan” published in “Molla Nasraddin” in November, 1917 and he could farsightedly feel the events taken place in Russia, leading to the liberty of Azerbaijan. The idea of the Union Azerbaijan was vividly put ahead in the article. The information of the geographical borders of the separated Azerbaijan given in the reply of “Where is Azerbaijan?” the author wrote. “The most part of Azerbaijan is in Iran and the center of which is Tabriz and the rest part is situated in Gilan, the ancient Russia and the Ottoman government, which comprises the largest part of our Caucasus, the Ottoman Kurdustan and Bayazid territories.”
In the one staged “Kamancha” play, dealing with the actual problem of the time –about Armenian –Azerbaijani conflict, the highest humanism of the Azerbaijan people, was reflected with deep psychological–artistic confidence and with exceptional power of influence.
Heydar Aliyev, national leader of the Azerbaijan people, evaluated the literary –public activity of J.Mammadguluzadeh very highly. J.Mammadguluzadeh’s house museum was opened and used (1999) in Nakhchivan with the participitation and protection of the national leader.