Wednesday , 21 April 2021

Nakhchivani Ajami Abubakr oglu


Nakhchivani Ajami Abubakr oglu (the 20th years of the XII century–end of the XII century) –architect. The prominent figure of the Azerbaijan architecture. The founder of the Nakhchivan architectural schooling. It was Ajami who gave a new direction to the Middle Age of the Azerbaijan architecture, brought great tenderness and dynamic to the difficult and sharp style of the Saljugs period architecture with his handicraft greatness and influenced strongly to the Near East architecture. The descriptive work of the craftsman who called himself “Abubakr oglu Ajami, architecture from Nakhchivan” in the inscriptions of the monuments created by him and his engineering which made parallel with architecture is vividly seen. The great genius figures of the East called him “Sheykhul-muhəndis” (Master of engineers).

The activity of Ajami linked with Nakhchivan, the capital of the powerful Azerbaijan Atabaylar state in the XII century. That time vast construction works were held in Nakhchivan which was situated in the TRADE roads junction of international importance and handicraft center of Azerbaijan.

The first known monument of Ajami is the monument of Usif Kuseyir oglu. The tomb which is situated in the center of Nakhchivan and which is known as “Atababa dome” was built in 1162. The monument consisting of the octagon body, tower like dome, counterforts in the corners was built of brick and the walls were designed with the assembled geometrical ornaments. The techtonics (architectonics) of architecture made harmony with artistry in this monument. In the inscription put on the left side of the entrance door the name of the architect was written: “The work of Ajami Abubakr oglu Nakhchivani, builder”. The Momuna Khatun tomb, being considered one of the highest monuments with the finest composition not only in Azerbaijan but also in the Islamic world was erected by Ajami in 1186 in the Western part of Nakhchivan. This tomb better known as “Atabay dome” was erected to the honour of Momuna Khatun, the wife of Atabay Shamsaddin Eldaniz, the mother of Mahammad Jahan Pahlavan. The monument was the dominant of a great architectural complex with its big sizes, monumental shape and dynamic silhouette. The ten pointed Momuna Kahtun tomb, established on the basis of the architectural principles extention and complication, is the monumental monument. The tomb is an unexampled art work for its downground structure, for the completion of the architectural divisions parting these surfaces with the outerior surfaces and also for the geometric ornaments compiling. Ajami built the ornaments of the Momuna Khatun tomb with the complicated designs resembling the geometrical systems by bringing parallels the Cufic inscriptions with the ornament designs he was able to suit it to the general composition of the monument.

One more monument of Ajami belonging to the XII century, consists of the double minaret and the portal joining them. This monument, including Momuna Khatun tomb too, is the entrance part of a big architectural complex. The Juma Mosque of Nakhchivan “Darulmulk” whose name is called in the sources –the palace of Eldanizlar and “Dovlatkhana” (Government House) building included to this complex and remained separated till the XX century are the examples of Ajami work.

Ajami activity influenced the architecture of Azerbaijan and the Near East countries. Ajami tradition is vividly seen in the Green dome in Maragha (1196), the Gulustan tomb in Nakhchivan (XIII century), the Garabaghlar tomb (XII-XIV century), the tombs of Barda and Salmas (XIV century), in the tombs built in Istanbul by the Turkish architect Sinan (XVI century). When building the monument on the grave of Nizami in Ganja in 1926 the tradition of Ajami was used and the tomb of Nizami was built on the basis of Ajami style. The architectural tradition of Ajami is clearly seen in the pedestal of the Nizami monument erected in Baki, in the tomb of Vagif in Shusha, in the tomb of Husein Javid in Nakhchivan. The popular art-critic from Australia Ernest Dits stated that the tombs built by Sinan in Istanbul were created under the influence of the Nakhchivan tombs. Sinan as a military engineer came to Nakhchivan during his Iran visit in 1535-36 years and saw the architectural schooling of Ajami.

The activity of Ajami is one of the bright reflections of the XII century Azerbaijan culture and public opinion renaissance. The fineness in his monuments, the structure of his architectural divisions, the playfulness of the ornament designs are the result of the artistic thinking unframed to the Middle Age notion. His ornament compositions base on artistry and unity of the mathematical thought.

Ajami was the engineer and craftsman who found the solution of the techtonics (architectonics) being one of the key problems of the architectural work, which was come across very seldom in the world architecture. His great engineering ability is seen in the nuerver spans systems of the vault of the Momuna Khatun tomb and in the completion of the arches ornaments prepared architectural century before the Western Europe architecture, in the giant dome of the Juma Mosque and in the double minarets.

Nakhchivani Hindushah (1245, Giran-1328,?) –historian, linguist, philosopher, writer, translator, poet, secretary, statesman. He studied in the Mustansariyya madrasa of Baghdad.Hindushah Nakhchivani was the ruler substitutor of his brother Seyfaddovla Amir Mahmud, the ruler of Kashan in 1275 and later he worked the architectural teacher in the Mustansariyya madrasa. In 1289 he made the copy of “Jame ad-dagaig fi kashf al-hagaig” of Najmaddin Katibi for the madrasa use. At the end of the century he worked in the financial system, became a ruler of several provinces, became a great statesman and was given a penname “Fakhr ad-dovla”. He made a close friendship with the son of Alaaddin Atamalik Guveyn and in respect to Guveyni he received the title of “Sahibi”. Hindushah Nakhchivani knew the Turkish, Arabic, Persian and also Pahlavi (Middle Persian) languages perfectly well and his great outlook, farsightedness, literary taste drew the attention of people. He also was busy with philosophy, astrology, mathematics and other sciences and did translations. He created the most splendid samples of perfect and beautiful prose in Persian as his contemporary Sadi Shirazi did. Only some works of H.Nakhchivani reached our period. The anthology “Mavarid-al arab” written in Arabic was completed in 1307, in Tabriz. His work “Tajarub al-salaf” (The experiences of the followers) dealing with the lives, periods, their vezirs of the Arabic Caliphs (56 Caliphs), the history of Amavilar, Abbasilar and Saljugilar was completed in 1324 and was dedicated to Nasraddin Ahmad ibn Usif shah (1295-1330), Great Lur Atabay. The work “Tajarub al-salaf” is factually known as the Persian translation of the work “Al Fakhr” of Ibn Tagtag, the Arabic scientist. But by perfect translation of that work into Perisan Nakhchivani threw out some parts of it, did a lot of additions and extended the work and as a result of which made its volume thrice more compared with its Arabic variant. In the work “Tajarub al-salaf” which is said to be the most perfect work written in Persian, the information is given about Nakhchivan, side by side with the stock of the author, himself, Shamsaddin Guveyni and other prominent figures as well. The author states that Giran belonged to the Nakhchivan tuman but Vanand village to Giran and it also is stated that a very suitable Khanagah was built by Shamsaddin Mahammad Guveyni (1225-83) in Vanand and properties were shared for it. His missing Nakhchivan once again proves that H.Nakhchivani was from this land. The author wishing power and health from God desires to be in Nashava (Nakhchivan) again. The work “Sihah ul-ajam” of H. Nakhchivani is the dictionary of Persian–Azerbaijani. The dictionary consisting of 21 parts and 393 chapters includes 3 parts–introduction (in Arabic), dictionary and grammar of Persian (in Arabic). About 10000 Azerbaijani words expressing the most Persian words (5117) and their equalency were given in comparison with other dictionaries. The work is the valuable source in learning the lexics and grammar of the XIII-XIV Azerbaijan and also Persian languages.

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