Wednesday , 14 April 2021

Nasraddin Tusi


  Nasraddin Tusi (17.2.1201-Tus-25.6.1274 Baghdad)–encyclopaedist scientist, philosopher, public-political figure. Tusi is his surname but Nasraddin (religion follower) is his pen-name. He also was known with the nicknames Abu Abdulla, substituter of Mahammad or Abu Jafar. He also was named Khaja (Mister) of which Movla of the same meaning. He received his primary education from his father and uncle and then studied different fields of the humanity and exact sciences deeply in Khorasan. Nasraddin Tusi was permitted by Muniaddin Salim Misri to deliver hedis (religious view of the imams) in 30.6.1222.

Nasraddin Tusi went to Isfahan by the invitation of Nasraddin Mohtasham, Kuhistan ruler, one of the leaders of the Ismaililar and was welcomed warmly. But as a result of the conflicts occurred between them the existing trust to Nasraddin Tusi went down and he lived in the Alamut fortress, as if in prison. Nasraddin Tusi was freed just thereafter Hulaku Khan’s victory over the Ismaililar in 1256 and was appointed the advisor for himself. The scientist was known for his wise measures who participated in conquering of Baghdad and especially he took a great care of the intellectuals and was able to save their lives. About 500 families who had left Maragha and Tabriz returned back thanks to his activity.

One of the most important contributions in the world scientific and cultural history of Nasraddin Tusi is the establishment of the Maragha Observatory in 1259. He gathered more than 100 members of different nations to the observatory and created a normal atmosphere for their working. In the madrasa, under the authority of the observatory, all kinds of knowledges related to that period including scientific, religious, philosophic and public-political branches were learned. The madrasa obtained more than 400 thousand volumes of rich library. Nasraddin Tusi died in his Baghdad visit and according to his testament he was buried in the holy Kazimeyn city. It is interesting that the vault where he was buried was prepared for the Caliph Nasir li-Dinillah about 75 years, 7 months and 7 days before Nasraddin Tusi’s birth but for some unknown reasons it was left empty.

The three sons of Nasraddin Tusi – Sadraddin Ali, Asiladdin Hasan and Fakhraddin Ahmad followed the scientific way and in the same time worked in the official works. Avhadi Maraghayi (1274-1338) dedicated his “Dahnama” masnavi (1306) to Khaja Ziyaaddin Usif Asiladdin oglu Hasan, the grandson of Nasraddin Tusi. The people from the GENERATİON of Nasraddin Tusi later lived in the territory of Nakhchivan and were popular in the field of science, literature and art. The information about Nasraddin Tusi generation living in the Ordubad region and for this Shah Abbas the First (1587-1629) exempting the region of Ordubad from all taxes was engraved in the inscription on the entrance door of the Juma Mosque built in the XVII century in Ordubad.

The personal outlook of Nasraddin Tusi was reflected in his tractates about religion, philosophy, policy and ethics. In the works “The tractate about Imamat” (Risala fil-imama) and some different works of the thinker belonging to the Shiah sector the specific features not only 12 Shiah imams but in general all positive characters specific for the imams are put forward. Nasraddin Tusi in his “Algebra and destiny” tractate considered positively the will freedom of human. Both the Shiahs and Sunnets contributed from the works of the thinker who was far from the sector protection. In his tractates about philosophy Nasraddin Tusi shared places for the book of Ibn Sina “The solution of problems” (“Hall al-Mush kilat”) dedicated to the commentary of the book “Signs and notes”, “The isolation of a word” (“Tajrid al-kalam”), “The base of loaning” (Asas al-iqtibas). There is the manuscript of the tractate “The solution of problems” belonging to the XIII-XVII centuries in the Institute of Manuscripts named after Fuzuli of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. Nasraddin Tusi was a prominent follower of the Ibn Sina and Bahmanyar schooling and promoted our Eastern peripatetic.

The ethic and public-political views of Nasraddin Tusi mainly was reflected in the work “Akhlagi-Nasir” written in honour of Nasraddin Mohtasham in 1235. In this work where a place was shared for the general philosophic problems, the different aspects of characters, good and sinful features are studied, the features making people perfect, the ways leading to goodness and happiness are stated. In the administrative theory of Nasraddin Tusi who directs the attention to the human and community relations, analyses himself, family and state administration and considers the administration of people very important according to “justice, honest and wisdom” laws. Nasraddin Tusi demonstrated his humanism in the works about figha (Moslem right) and regarded the stability and peaceful condition of the people very important. He is also the author of the tractates of musical theory and music and inclusively philosophic poems. The wide outlook, wide range philosophic understanding and so progressive ethic and public-political views, also his thoughts about theology sound well, even today and call the attention of mankind.

The 780th jubilee of Nasraddin Tusi was marked widely in 1981, a medal was instituted to his honour, monuments were erected to him, his portrait was painted (The People’s Artist Najafgulu). Several scientific, educational and cultural-educational enterprises of the Azerbaijan Republic of which, the Astrophisics Observatory of Shamakhi of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, streets were named after Nasraddin Tusi. By the decision of UNESCO his 800th jubilee was marked all over the world. On this occasion by the decision of Heydar Aliyev, president of the Azerbaijan Republic signed on June 13, 2000 “About the 800th jubilee of Nasraddin Tusi” a jubilee committee was organized and his jubilee was celebrated.

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